Hackintosh Installation Guide

Install mac OS Catalina on PC: Hackintosh Catalina Guide

Catalina is Hackintoshable, yet it requires supported hardware and effort to be installed on a PC. Right now, the newest iteration of macOS is 10.15, known as Catalina. In this guide, we’ll show you how to install Catalina on your PC with the newly released “Niresh Catalina” distribution, from Niresh.

Advantage of Other Methods VS Niresh Catalina

  • You do not need a real Mac: All other Hackintoshing methods need to have an existing macOS installation for it to work. This usually means that you either have to find a real Mac, or set up a Mac VM. However, with Niresh Catalina, you can just set up everything even from a Windows / Linux computer.
  • The post installation is easier: By default, Niresh Catalina will automatically install necessary Hackintosh specific kexts and drivers for your computer when you boot your macOS installation for the first time. Other methods require you to do this manually, While the post installation in Niresh Catalina can cover up most Hackintoshes (you may have to use Install some kexts manually), it is still a nice convenience.
  • Niresh Catalina supports more hardware: Normally other Hackintoshing methods are specific for a Computer Build, but Niresh Catalina can be Installed on most computers without touching a single line of code.

Interested in Installing Hackintosh Catalina, Here are the requirements

  • An existing computer with Windows, Linux or Mac: This is the computer where you will download and set up Niresh Catalina. The computer can run either Windows, Linux or macOS; any operating systems will work.
  • A Hackintosh-compatible computer with an empty hard drive: This is the computer where you will install Hackintosh Catalina. It can be the same computer as the one mentioned in the previous point. If your computer already has macOS installed, Niresh Catalina will just update macOS normally, without deleting any of your apps or files, but always a fresh installation is recommended. macOS needs its own hard drive partition — a minimum of 15 GB of space is required, but at least 50 GB of space is recommended. It is preferred that you use a completely empty hard drive for Installing Niresh Catalina.
  • Niresh Catalina (Free): Niresh Catalina is a distro of macOS Catalina that has been modified to work with PCs. You will need to use a Bittorrent client to download the disk image file containing Niresh Catalina, which is a little less than 6 GB in size. You must register on the Hackintosh Zone website to be able to download anything.
  • An empty USB drive (8 GB or larger): In this guide, you will write (port) Niresh Catalina onto a USB drive, and boot your computer from that drive to install macOS Catalina. The USB drive must be at least 8 GB in size. Since you will need to erase all of the files on the USB drive, make sure to back up its contents first. You can reuse this USB drive for normal stuff after you finish installing Catalina.
  • TransMac: ($48, 15-day free trial): If you are using a Windows computer to set up Niresh Catalina, you need to use TransMac to write the disk image file onto your USB drive. You can just download the free trial.
  • Restore Catalina.pkg: (Free): If you’re using a Mac to set up Niresh Catalina, you need to Hackintosh Zone’s special “Restore Catalina” app to write the disk image file onto your USB drive. Again, you must register on the Hackintosh Zone website to be able to download anything.
  • Metal Supported Graphics Card: Metal is the foundation for accelerated graphics and compute on Apple platforms, enabling your apps and games to tap into the incredible power of the GPU. Catalina requires metal compatible Graphics Card to have full graphics acceleration on macOS. But Metal is not necessary to Install macOS.
  • Here is the list of Nvidia Cards that are Natively Supported with Catalina.
    • GTX Titan | GK 110
    • GTX Titan Black | GK 110
    • GTX Titan Z
    • GTX 780 Ti
    • GTX 780
    • GTX 770
    • GTX 760 Ti
    • GT 740
    • GT 730
    • GT 720
    • GT 710
    • GTX 690
    • GTX 680
    • GTX 670
    • GTX 660 Ti
    • GTX 650 Ti
    • GTX 645 (Fermi)
    • GT 640 (Kepler edition, GK 107/208 core)
    • GT 630 (Kepler edition, GK 208 core)
    • Quadro 410
    • Quadro K420
    • Quadro K600
    • Quadro K2000/D
    • Quadro K4000/D
    • Quadro K4200
    • Quadro K5000
    • Quadro K5200
    • Quadro K6000
    • Quadro NVS510

Create your Hackintosh Catalina Bootable USB drive.

Creating Hackintosh Catalina Bootable USB from Mac.

Follow this step if you are setting up Niresh on a Mac or existing Hackintosh. Plug your USB drive into Mac, and open Disk Utility (located in Applications->Utilities in your main hard drive). Select your USB drive in the sidebar of Disk Utility and erase the drive, with the “Format” set to “Mac OS Extended (Journaled)” format. You can rename the drive any way you want.

Select the main USB Device, “USB DISK 3.0 Media” as in the example above.

Erase USB as “Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format” & as “GUID Partition Map” Scheme.

Next, make sure that your Niresh Catalina disk image file is in the same folder as “Restore Niresh Catalina.pkg”. If “Restore Niresh Catalina.pkg” is still in a ZIP file, double-click that file to unzip it.

Double click on “Restore Niresh Catalina.pkg” to start the app. By default, the app will be aimed at your computer’s main hard drive (mine is named “Mac” in the picture above). You do not want this– instead, click through the installer until you reach the page with the “Change Install Location” button.

From here, change the install location of the app to your USB drive (mine is named “Catalina Installer” in the picture below).

Press the enter / return key. The app will ask for your system password. After you enter your password, it will begin writing the Niresh Catalina disk image onto the USB drive.

This will probably take 20-40 minutes, though it may take longer, depending on the speed of your USB drive & Computer. Once it finishes, your USB drive will contain a fully bootable version of the Hackintosh Catalina installer.

NOTE: “Restore Niresh Catalina.pkg” is very glitchy. If you can not find the “Change Install Location” button on the first time that you run the app, restart your computer and re-run the app.

Creating Hackintosh Catalina Bootable USB from Windows.

 Follow this step if you are setting up Niresh Catalina on Windows. Plug your USB drive into your computer, and open TransMac. Find your USB drive on the left-hand column of the TransMac window.

Right-click on the USB drive, and click “Format Disk for Mac”. This will delete all of the files on your drive and prepare it for macOS Catalina.

Once your USB drive is done formatting, right-click it again and click “Restore with Disk Image”.

Transmac restore niresh catalina

A file selection window will pop up, Choose your Niresh Catalina disk image file (it will probably be called “Niresh-Catalina.dmg”), and proceed. Now, TransMac will write Niresh Catalina onto your USB drive.

This will probably take 20 to 40 minutes, though it may take longer, depending on the speed of your USB drive. Once TransMac finishes, your USB drive will contain a fully bootable version of the Hackintosh Catalina installer.

Creating Bootable Niresh Catalina USB from Linux.

Preparing Catalina bootable USB from Linux is tricky, First, you have to uncompress dmg, then write it to USB.

Install DMG2IMG with YUM or APT-GET from Terminal

sudo apt-get install dmg2img
sudo yum install dmg2img

de-compress Catalina DMG with DMG2IMG.
Then restore the uncompressed image to USB.
Change the variables below as you need (Warning: The following is just an example do not copy and paste).

sudo dmg2img -v -i /path/to/'Niresh-Catalina.dmg' -o /path/to/Niresh-Catalina-Uncompressed.dmg
sudo dd if=/path/to/Niresh-Catalina-Uncompressed.dmg of=/dev/sdb bs=1M

Set up the parts of your Personal Computer.

  • Unplug all USB connected devices from your computer before you begin the setup (except your keyboard and mouse.). A faulty external USB hard drive can cause your Hackintosh boot loader to hang on startup.
  • Open up your computer and unplug any extra internal hard drives that your computer has, besides the hard drive that you are installing macOS on. (Just unplug the hard drive SATA cables from your motherboard.)
  • Remove any unnecessary PCI Cards and Hardware (You can plug them later.)

Set up your motherboard’s BIOS for Catalina.

Essentially, the BIOS (or UEFI) is the settings page for your computer’s motherboard. From here, you can fiddle with how your computer hardware works.
It is often necessary to change a few basic settings in the BIOS or UEFI to get macOS up and running. The BIOS standard is generally used by motherboards from before 2012, while the UEFI standard is used by motherboards made after that, Niresh Catalina only support UEFI Based BIOS.

  • To access BIOS / UEFI Setup, Press and hold Delete button on a USB Keyboard while the system is booting up.
  • Load Optimized Defaults.
  • Set USB drive to the highest boot priority.
  • If your CPU supports VT-d, disable it.
  • Disable CFG-Lock.
  • Disable Secure Boot Mode
  • If your system has OS Type, set it to Other OS.
  • Set OS Type to Other OS.
  • Save and exit.

Read more about Configuring UEFI BIOS for a Hackintosh

Boot into Hackintosh Catalina

Restart your Hackintosh, and plug in your Niresh Catalina USB drive. If things go well, your computer will boot from the USB drive instead of booting from your normal hard disk. You will then be able to view the Niresh Catalina clover boot loader menu.

Hackintosh Catalina Guide

If you do not manage to reach the Niresh Catalina menu, check your motherboard’s BIOS settings to make sure that the changes you made in Step 6 were properly applied. If they were, but you still cannot boot from the Niresh Catalina USB drive, unplug your USB drive, and go back to Step 4. Reformat your USB drive with Disk Utility and try again. If all else fails, try using a different USB drive for Niresh Catalina.

At the Hackintosh Catalina menu, press the enter key (or return key) to start the mac os Catalina installer. The installer screen will take several minutes to load.

Hackintosh Catalina Installer

In the worst case scenarios, instead of loading the Mac OS installer, you may end up at a dark gray screen that tells you to restart your computer (a kernel panic), or you may end up with a small crossed-out sign (a loading error). If you get a kernel panic/loading error (or if the Mac OS installer simply won’t start within 10 minutes), you’ll need to enter some boot flags. To enter boot flags, manually restart your computer by pressing your computer’s power button. Then, once you’ve booted back into the Hackintosh Catalina menu, try typing any necessary boot flags before pressing the enter/return key. Check out our list of common boot flags and our guide to fixing boot problems with verbose mode for reference.

Install Hackintosh Catalina

Once you’ve entered the macOS Catalina installer, you will come up to a hard disk selection page. This is where you choose where you want to install Catalina.

Open Disk Utility Catalina Installer

If you’re installing Catalina on a computer that has never been turned into a Hackintosh before (i.e. doesn’t already have Mojave, High Sierra, Sierra, or EL Capitan installed), there won’t be any hard disk options to select. We’ll have to fix that. To do this, start up Disk Utility, which is located under the Utilities menu in the top bar.

You need to use Disk Utility to erase a hard drive partition so that macOS Catalina can install itself on it. In the sidebar of Disk Utility, choose the hard drive partition where you want Catalina installed, and erase it by using the “Erase” tab. You can also just erase the entire hard drive. In the screenshot below, my two hard drive partition is called “Macintosh HD”, while my entire hard drive is called “Apple SSD macOS-0 SSD Media”.

Erase Hard Disk for Catalina

When erasing, the format should be set to “APFS” & Scheme to “GUID Partition Scheme”. You can also partition the hard disk by using Disk Utility’s Partition tab.

On the installation page for macOS, the hard disk/disk partition should now be showing up. Select it, and then click the “Customize” button on the bottom left. This is where using a distro becomes really useful: Catalina Zone allows you to install extra Hackintosh drivers and kexts, straight from the macOS Catalina installer.

Hackintosh Catalina Customize

However, choosing the right options from this page can be really tricky, so unless you’re absolutely certain about which drivers and kexts you need to install for your computer, I don’t recommend installing too much stuff from here. The default selection will enable macOS to boot from the hard drive without any assistance, and automatically enable audio and ethernet. For most computers, that will be enough.

If your computer already has macOS installed and you are simply updating it to Catalina, you can just uncheck all of these options. macOS treats Catalina as just another update, there’s no need to reinstall all of your kexts and drivers.

Once you’re done with the “Customize” page, install Catalina. This will take at least 30 minutes.


Summary of Hackintosh Catalina Guide

  • Download Catalina (Link in the article)
  • Make Bootable Catalina USB
  • Make PC Ready for #Hackintosh Catalina
  • Configure BIOS
  • Boot into Installer
  • Customize & Install Catalina
  • Boot into macOS Catalina

148 replies on “Install mac OS Catalina on PC: Hackintosh Catalina Guide”

I installed catalina beta, everything works perfectly, I wanted to ask, but when the final version comes out, it will be enough to update or I have to reinstallan everything?

Hi, I have successfully installed Catalina with no issues, but after I installed the 10.15.1 update, as you said that would be no problems, the screen goes off after few reboots (normal). What can I tweak to use it normally again?

I have a Radeon 580x as a graphic card, i5 (intel), 16 GB ram. (in the BIOS (clover) its recognized as a 480X GPU.

What do you need more (info) to be able to find a proper solution? any suggestions?

Should I again reinstall the original CATALINA (niresh) and don’t update? And leave it as it is without updating?

There are new updates for Lilu and whatevegreen somewhere ? (the one “received” with the niresh first installation does not count?) I included them in the first installation.

Important to follow directions and remove extra hardware that can be put back later like usb stuff and hard drives. If all goes well and you get a working Catalina Mac but get crashes that say cpu panic it may be from a failing hard drive. watch the text while computer is booting for I/O Errors, that’s a hint of a bad drive. Otherwise Nireash has done a another great job on his installer.

I have been trying it out on different laptops and motherboards the best with no hassle is Gigabyte motherboard but not the Mini-ITX which has only two DIMM slots like Ga-H61M-S it will not work I have tried if you want to go cheap or has one go for Gigabyte 4 DIMM slots like GA-Z77P-D3 it works like a charms (:

To install an older OSX on a newer mac:

1. Use the Disk Utility to create TWO NEW PARtITIONS on your boot drive.
2. Make a small partition for the OSX dmg to be restored to and a larger one for installing OSX onto.
3. Once you’ve created those partitions, use Disk Utility, select the smaller one and select the “restore” option at the top of the window.
4. Select the OSX installer dmg file and it will restore the instance of OSX to the small partition.
5. Restart your mac and hold ‘option’ key after the on sound to get into the boot selection window
6. Select the OSX installer partition, it helps if you name the partition something like OSX (Maybe version name like Mountain Lion) Installer
7. Start the install process and select the larger partition you just created to install the OSX to and follow the prompts to finish the install, takes about a half an hour to complete all this.
8. Enjoy installing all kinds of software to use the old version of OSX.

This actually worked on my 17″ 2011 macbook pro, which surprised me. Fun times.

Please post in the forum for further support, Catalina requires supported computer hardware to install and configure.

This guide only installs on a fresh volume, i do not recommend upgrade over existing installation, it may leave junk files behind with previous MacOS.

Can you upgrade from Niresh Catalina(when you have it installed on a partition) to the next version of macOS whenever it comes out through the Software Update panel in the Apple Menu like genuine Macs? Or get just other macOS software updates through that panel?

Yes 80% of the time the updates are safe, sometime some kexts or boot-loader needs to be updated before Installing the updates,
For example: Hackintosh 10.15.1 update requires to update Whatevergreen.kext & Lilu.kext before update, This is mandatory for AMD Graphics Card users.

Thanks for this amazing project. I tried it today on my asus ux301laa.
The usb boots perfectly and I am able to erase and start the installation process…but during the installation I receive the OSInstall.postscript.pkg error. Someone could help me please?

Nothing to do.. changed to AHCI, secure mode disabled and fast boot disabled..still same issue.. I also tried to recreate the image through mac..

Il works like a charm on my NUC5 i5, straight forward. I can’t begin to imagine how much time and effort that have been put in such an easy installer.
Many thanx to Niresh.

I am getting the glOScreenLockState 3 error on Intel HD4000 (I had a GTX1660 on this computer but removed it before trying the first time).

Any ideas, please?

Hardware is Intel i7 3370 12gb ram, hd4000. I see “unsupported cpu” and “unsupported pch” in the messages list.

Then it stops at the glOScreenLockState 3.

Now I trued the Intel fakeid 0x12345678 trick and it loaded, but that will disable all hardware acceleration and Metal support, I guess? Wont cut it for me, I need Metal.

Thanks for any help!

Hmm with “loaded” I mean it’s there with the lpgo and the bar in like 1%, for several minutes already.

It worked like a charm except Wi-fi cars not being seen it is a rtl 8623de with one antenna,also I try an work around with usb rtl wn-725n but no luck .my laptop is hip pavilion 14-ce0xxx i3 8th gen 8gb ram intel620hd

I plan on installing Niresh Catalina on a Lenovo Ideapad 300 Notebook on a second SSD and dual booting with Windows 10. Is it possible? Where do I find a tutorial for this task?
(i don’t speak english so i use google translator)

Dual booting is not possible with Niresh Catalina, Unless if you have two hard disk Install macOS Catalina on One and Windows on Another.

I’ve intalled Niresh Catalina in my PC, but when I try to restart the computer the clover menu doesn’t show my hard drive where Catalina is intalled in.
Where is my problem?
Thank you


First I would like to thank you for all the efforts that you put on this project to make it as easy as possible.

my installer just come up to the welcome screen – cannot edit the options to place boot args. it feels like a little lag. I already consider creating another installer from different flash drive but no luck – I am facing black screen if using the default boot arg. I believe I need to disable my nvidia driver.

by the way here is my set up
i3-4170 – nvidia gforce 730 2gb and 8 gig of ram lastly 240gb kingston ssd.

Looking forward for you responses.

Instead of Catalina, Go with High Sierra or Sierra.
If you have a built-in Graphics. Use it to Install macOS, Then Plug GT 730 Later.

Thanks you very much for the work!!!

I am a Linux user and I would like to install macOS, my question is, after installing macOS on a hard disk completely empty, can I install Linux later?

I Think Kernel panic related to Graphics, but couldn’t see it clearly post your full hardware specs. or Post in Hackintosh Zone forum.

I got a kernel panic the first time I launched the setup.
So I entered these boot flags (Mojave’s ones) :
-v dart=0 darkwake=0 -disablegfxfirmware nv_disable=1 -igfxvesa -radvesa -nehalem_error_disable -no_compat_check
Then, the setup started correctly. But the installation is very fast and at the end, I have an OSInstall.prescript.pkg error. How to get around this?

I just found the solution! My volume’s name was “Sunazerty’s Mac”. I only had to remove the single quote in the name, and now it works! But when the system restart, I have 2 more options “Boot macOS Install Prebooter from Preboot” and “Boot macOS Install Prebooter from Sunazertys Mac”. Which one should I choose?

750 Ti is, build with different architecture called Maxwell. It is not supported.

Catalina currently supports only Kepler based cards.

Here is the list of Nvidia Cards that are Natively Supported with Catalina.

GTX Titan | GK 110
GTX Titan Black | GK 110
GTX Titan Z
GTX 780 Ti
–> Here, have to be GTX 780 <–
GTX 770
GTX 760 Ti
GT 740
GT 730
GT 720
GT 710
GTX 690
GTX 680
GTX 670
GTX 660 Ti
GTX 650 Ti
GTX 645 (Fermi)
GT 640 (Kepler edition, GK 107/208 core)
GT 630 (Kepler edition, GK 208 core)
Quadro 410
Quadro K420
Quadro K600
Quadro K2000/D
Quadro K4000/D
Quadro K4200
Quadro K5000
Quadro K5200
Quadro K6000
Quadro NVS510

I think GTX 780 forgotten at the list….

show error when I re-install niresh catlina on my dell e7440 core i7 8gb 500ssd
It showed the following error:
An error occurred while running scripts from the package “OSInstall.postscript.pkg”

Why first it installed in my dell but after removed and re-install it again, it showed me above error.
Is there any one can help
my dell is e7440 core i7 8gb 500ssd

Did you erase hard disk as under GUID Partition table?
What is your volume name?
Can you attach the Installer log?

I use an asus vivobook max x541UV
during the installation, I get the error “an error occurred while running scripts from the package OSInstall.postscript.pkg”

Hello!!! Nice job!!! Thank you so much!!!! I have a Dell XPS 8500 Desktop with Core i7-3770 at 3.40 GHz (3rd generation), 32 GB RAM, Nvidia GeForce GT640 and made a partition of 300GB on my HDD to install MacOs (I already have Windows 10 on my PC)… can install this version of MacOs??? if not, which version ca you suggest me??

Very kind regards!!!

I’m finish booting from usb and fresh instalation, but afer i’m booting there is no efek its only blank screen.. i use laptop HP 8460P..

NVIDIA RTX 2070 is not currently supported, and i can not Guarantee any ETA as there is a conflict between Apple and Nvidia.

hi, i have a customized Desktop with intel i7-6700k and Nvdia GTX 1070, can it be done on catalina ? or have to goes with earlier version of Mac0S ?

Still trying to do the install.
During install, cannot uncheck the options, they all group totogether.
For example: i want to use AppleAC for audio, unfortunately i have to install VoodooHDA as well which i don’t need.
So I install it as is, waiting to see what happened.
I have the latest Niresh Catalina

Bootnote. An SD card in an SD card reader will not work unfortunately.

Workaround is use USB stick or put your SD card into a USB adapter.

For some reason, i get to the last point and i finally click install, it takes afew minutes and reboots a few times anddd… it goes back to the installer? it is looping for some reason…

It could be because the boot loader has not Installed correctly, You need to erase hard disk under “GUID Partition Scheme” to Install macOS.

Hello Niresh,

I have been fan of your distro and used it so far as always but recently I found and issue and It’s not working in Dell Optiplex 3060 (i5 8500 16Gb and SSD).

Can you please check once with such scenario and suggest.


I have installed it successfully but it doesn’t boot…
Getting something like Gtrace synchronisation point and it loops into it forver…
Please help me fix it ASAP

I’ve installed almost complete but stuck on Wifi Could not working

My MainBoard : Gigabyte Z370N Wifi

Please advice me

Hello sir
Please can I install Niresh Catalina or lesser version on my Asus K501U, 16GB of ram, 250GB of SSD, GTX 950 Nvidia, an i7 Intel processor. Thanks.

Thanks Niresh, I was able to install Sierra 10.12.3 and upgrade to 10.12.6 on my Asus i7 intel processor, intel HD 520 inbuilt graphic and Nvidia GTX 950M. Please how can I make the graphic to work. The system recognize Intel graphic HD 520 31MB. What can you recommend I do to make the graphic work. Thanks.

Hello lovely people,

I’d like to thank you for your great effort on helping us.
I have a core i7 4790k processor with ATI Radeon Dual-X R9 270x 4GB DDR5 Graphics card and 8 GB of DDR4 RAM. My Motherboard is Gigabyte G1 Sniper B6. Can I install Hackintosh Catalina on my system and have the GPU working along with other features as well? If not, which other version of Mac OS X do you suggest for my system? Also it’d be much appreciated if you can tell me if I need to use my internal graphics first to install Mac OS and then later plug-in my AMD Graphics card or not.

Any Help is much appreciated. Looking forward to hearing from you.


Thanks for confirming! After around 12 to 13 failed attempts to install Hackintosh on my PC, finally I was able to install Catalina. I’ve tried with Sierra, High Sierra, Mojave before trying Catalina and finally settled on Catalina. Everything worked fine during the installation. It detected my Audio, Ethernet, Graphics Card perfectly!

@Niresh, Now that I have Catalina installed and the App store is asking for Apple ID when I try to install any app from the store. Is there any workaround for this? Or is it absolutely normal?

Also is it safe to install any updates of Catalina in the future and what should I need to consider or double check before updating?

For the people with failed attempts, here are a couple of things that I learned from my failed attempts:
1. Never lose hope 🙂
2. Most of the time inappropriate BIOS settings are the main reasons of failed hackintoshes.
3. Have patience 🙂

Hi, I’ve install macOS Catalina successfully but on my laptop Ethernet or WiFi nothing working. Even there is no list of network device in system preference. Would request your advice to setup Ethernet and WiFi n macOS

Thanks Niresh, I was able to install Sierra 10.12.3 and upgrade to 10.12.6 on my Asus i7 intel processor, intel HD 520 inbuilt graphic and Nvidia GTX 950M. Please how can I make the graphic to work. The system recognize Intel graphic HD 520 31MB. What can you recommend I do to make the graphic work. Thanks.

hi ALL
I can not get the installtion page and stuck any help please
this is my laptop SOME SPEC .
modle :hp elitebook 8570w
cpu : Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3720QM CPU @ 2.60GHz
graphics card : AMD FirePro M4000 (1 GB)
Network Adapter : Intel(R) 82579LM Gigabit Network Connection
Intel(R) Centrino(R) Ultimate-N 6300 AGN
DMI BIOS Vendor : Hewlett-Packard BIOS Version : 68IAV Ver. F.71
Audio : ATI Radeon HDMI
AMD High Definition Audio Device
High Definition Audio Controller
Direct3D Device Properties: Max Texture Size 16384 x 16384

I think Catalina does not support Installation on MBR Partition table, Correct me if i am wrong.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *